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Learn about the causes and symptoms of muscular dystrophy and its complications

Muscular dystrophy is a group of diseases that cause muscle weakness and progressive loss of muscle mass. Abnormal genes in muscular dystrophy prevent the production of proteins needed to build healthy muscle.

According to the mayoclinic website, there are several types of muscular dystrophy. Symptoms of the most common types begin in childhood, especially males, while other types do not show symptoms until adulthood.

Signs and symptoms, which usually appear in early childhood, may include:


1: Frequent falls.

2: Difficulty getting up from a lying or sitting position.

3: Facing problems in running and jumping.

4: wobbly gait (myopathic gait).

5: Walking on tiptoe.

6: Increase the size of the calf muscles.

7: Feeling of pain and stiffness in the muscles.

8: Learning difficulties.

9: Delayed growth.

Certain genes are involved in making proteins that protect muscle fibers. Muscular dystrophy occurs when one of these genes is defective. Each form of muscular dystrophy is caused by a genetic mutation specific to this type of disease, and most of these mutations are inherited.

Muscular dystrophy occurs in people of both sexes and of any age or race. However, the most common type, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, usually affects young boys. Also, people who have a family history of muscular dystrophy have an increased risk of developing the disease or passing it on to their children.

Complications of progressive muscle weakness include:


1: Difficulty walking, some people with muscular dystrophy eventually have to use a wheelchair.

2: Difficulty using the arms Doing daily activities may become more difficult if the arms and shoulders are affected.

3: Breathing problems, this gradual weakness can affect the muscles associated with breathing. People with muscular dystrophy may have to use a breathing device (respirator) at night at first, but may also use it during the day.

4: Curvature of the spine, weak muscles may not be able to stabilize the spine in a straight shape.

5: Heart problems, muscle atrophy may reduce the efficiency of the heart muscle.

6: Problems with swallowing, if the muscles responsible for swallowing are affected, feeding problems can arise and aspiration pneumonia occurs.